What happens during a criminal case may be confusing to a victim or witness. The following summary will explain how a case generally progresses through Michigan’s criminal justice system. Not every case will go to trial, so not all of the steps will be followed in every case.
Crime Committed / Police Notified
Investigation may include interviewing victim, witnesses, suspects; collecting physical evidence; visiting, viewing, photographing, measuring crime scene; identifying suspects; through line-ups ... etc.
Police Make an Arrest (or Request a Warrant)
When a crime is committed in a police officer's presence --- or the officer has probable cause to believe that certain misdemeanors or any felony was committed that the officer did not see happen --- an officer may arrest a suspect on the spot without an arrest warrant. The officer will later submit a charging/warrant request to the Prosecuting Attorney, suggesting potential charges to be authorized.
Warrant/Charging Request Reviewed by Prosecuting Attorney
Most cases begin with a warrant request. This is generally the first time that the Prosecuting Attorney's office is involved in a case, unless a prosecutor reviewed a search warrant or visited the crime scene. At this stage, the Prosecutor determines whether a person should be charged with a crime and, if so, what the crime should be. The Prosecutor must thoroughly review all reports and records concerning the case, including witness statements. The Prosecutor also reviews the suspect's prior criminal or traffic record. Occasionally, the reviewing Prosecutor sends the case back to the police to conduct additional investigation.
The Prosecutor can issue a charge if he or she reasonably believes that probable cause exists that the suspect committed the offense. But, most reviewing Prosecutors apply a higher standard --- whether the charge can be proved beyond a reasonable doubt at trial with the information known at that time.
District Court Arraignment
This is the first court appearance for any misdemeanor or felony. Once arrested and charged, the defendant appears in District Court for arraignment. The defendant is told what the charge(s) is (are) and the maximum penalty if convicted, and is advised of his/her constitutional rights to a jury or bench trial, appointed attorney, presumption of innocence, etc. The charging document is called a Complaint. The conditions and amount of bond are determined by the judge. In some cases --- generally based on the nature of the charge --- the Judge imposes conditions on the bond, such as no contact with the victim. Bond is set in almost every case, but it is up to the defendant's own resources to post the bail money, which allows him/her to be released.
All further pre-trial procedures are determined by whether the defendant is charged with a felony or misdemeanor:
At a misdemeanor arraignment, the defendant will be given a chance to enter a plea to the charge: plead guilty, plead not guilty, or stand mute (i.e., remain silent, which is treated by the court as if the defendant pled not guilty). If the defendant pleads guilty or no contest, and there is no crime victim involved, the Judge may sentence the defendant at that time or may reschedule the case for a sentencing date, which will give the probation department time to prepare a pre-sentence report including background information about the defendant and the crime, make a sentencing recommendation, etc. If the defendant stands mute or pleads not guilty, the case will be scheduled for a pre-trial conference.
Pretrial Conference --- All misdemeanor cases are scheduled for a meeting between a Prosecuting Attorney and the defendant (or their attorney) to discuss the case and any possible resolutions or to discuss issues regarding the case and to see if all parties are ready for trial. The Judge and witnesses are not directly involved in misdemeanor pre-trial conferences.
Pretrial Proceedings --- Many other events can occur prior to trial. Depending on the nature of the case, there may be pre-trial hearings on Constitutional issues (confessions, searches, identification, etc.). The issues are presented to the Court through written "motions" (e.g., Motion to Suppress Evidence, etc.). The Judge must determine whether evidence will be admitted or suppressed at the defendant's trial, whether there is some legal reason why the defendant should not be tried, or decide other ground rules for trial.
At a felony arraignment in District Court, the defendant does not plead guilty or not guilty. They are advised of their right to a preliminary examination within 14 days of the arraignment. The arraigning Judge may also consider a defendant's request for a court-appointed attorney at this time.
Felony Preliminary Examination --- This is an evidentiary hearing before a District Court Judge, sometimes called a "probable cause hearing", held within 14 days after arraignment. The Prosecutor presents witnesses to convince the Judge that there is at least probable cause to believe that the charged crime(s) was (were) committed and that the defendant committed the crime(s). Because the burden of proof is much less than at a trial, the Prosecutor generally presents just a fraction of his total evidence and witnesses. The defendant or their attorney can cross-examine the witnesses and present their own evidence (including witnesses). If the Prosecutor meets their burden of proof, the defendant is "bound over" to (i.e., sent) Circuit Court. If the Judge decides that there is not probable cause that the defendant committed the charged crime(s), the judge can bind the case over on different charges, can reduce the charges to misdemeanors for trial in District Court, or can dismiss charges. A defendant can be bound over to Circuit Court in two ways: They can have a Preliminary Examination hearing as explained above, or waive the Preliminary Examination.
Circuit Court Arraignment --- After the case is sent to Circuit Court, the defendant is arraigned again (given formal notice of the charges against him or her). The charging document is called an Information Felony. The defendant is again advised of his/her constitutional rights, and enters a plea to the charge (guilty, not guilty or stand mute). This is frequently done at the conclusion of a Preliminary Examination Hearing or waiver in the District Court.
Pre-Trial Conference/Final Conference --- The Circuit Court will schedule a meeting between the Prosecuting Attorney and the defendant's attorney to discuss the case and any possible resolutions or to discuss issues regarding the case and to see if all parties are ready for trial.
Pretrial Proceedings --- The Circuit Court Judge may be called upon to resolve various pre-trial issues, some of which determine whether the case will continue to a trial, be resolved with a plea, or be dismissed; whether evidence will be admissible at trial; etc.
Trial (Jury or Bench/Judge)
A trial is an adversary proceeding in which the Prosecutor must present evidence to prove the defendant's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. The defendant is not required to prove his or her innocence or to present any evidence, but may challenge the accuracy of the Prosecutor's evidence.
Both the defendant and the Prosecutor (representing the People of the State of Michigan) have the right to a trial by a jury. Sometimes, both sides agree to let a Judge listen to the evidence and decide the case without a jury; this is called a "bench trial". In a jury trial, the jury is the "trier of fact"; in a bench trial, the judge is. After the evidence is presented, the judge or a jury will determine whether the evidence proved that the defendant committed the crime.
Here is a general outline of the steps in a jury trial:
A criminal case jury verdict must be unanimous.
Pre-Sentence Investigation and Report
The court's probation department prepares a report for the judge summarizing the crime, and the defendant's personal and criminal backgrounds. Generally, the victim is contacted for a recommendation of sentence. The probation officer concludes the report with a recommended sentence.
Sentencing in Michigan varies with the crime and can be the most confusing part of the criminal process. Most often, sentences are at the judge's discretion. The judge will consider the information in the pre-sentence report (subject to factual corrections by the parties), additional evidence offered by the parties, comments by the crime victim, and other information relevant to the judge's sentencing decision. For felonies, the Circuit Court judge will consult "sentencing guidelines" (originally established by the Michigan Supreme Court, but now applicable by recent "Truth in Sentencing" laws). The sentencing guidelines factor in aspects of the defendant's criminal conduct and his prior record, to determine the minimum jail/prison sentence. The judge may consider different alternatives, such as a fine, probation, community service, a sentence to jail or prison, or a combination. The judge must also order the defendant to make restitution to any victims who have suffered financial harm.
Appeals from the District Court are heard in the Circuit Court. Appeals from a Circuit Court or Probate Court are heard in the Michigan Court of Appeals. Appeals from Court of Appeals decisions are heard in the Michigan Supreme Court.
If the appellate court grants leave to appeal, the defendant and Prosecutor file briefs that summarize the case facts, frame the legal issues to be decided, and present persuasive written arguments (supported by constitutional, statutory or prior case decision authority). Either party can request that the case be scheduled before the appellate court judges for oral argument. The appellate court will eventually issue a written opinion (or several opinions, if the justices disagree). Not all appellate opinions are "published" (i.e., printed in official "reporter" services, such as Michigan Reporter or Michigan Appellate Reporter). The legal analysis and conclusions in published opinions are given greater precedential authority than "unpublished" opinions.